NET Anthropology Syllabus

UGC NET Syllabus in Anthropology

1. Introduction: Aim, Scope, Historical Development, Relationship with other sciences, Different branches of anthropology and their interrelatedness. Recent and Emerging trends and major developments in all branches of Anthropology (Physical, Archaeological and Social-Cultural). Fieldwork, Ethnography, Comparative method, Observation, Interview, Case study, Genealogical method, Schedules and questionnaires, Statistical tools of Archaeological sites and Data collection.

2. Evolution: Theories of Evolution: Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism, Synthetic theory, Primates and Fossils: Fossil records, Earliest Primates (Aegyptopithecus, Propliopithecus, Dryopithecus, Proconsul), and living primates (Distribution, Classification, Characteristics, Phylogeny and Taxonomy).
Comparison of morphological and anatomical features of Man and Ape Erect Posture and Bipedalism.

3. Fossils: Characteristics and phyiogenetic position of early Hominoids Ramapithecus; Australopithecus Africanus; Australopithecus boisei (zinjanthropus); Australopithecus robustus; Meganthropus; Homo habilis; Characteristics and phyiogenetic position of Homo erectus; Homo erectus javanensis; Homo erectus pekinensis; Homo sapiens neanderthalenis Phyiogenetic position, salient features and distribution.
  • La Chapelle auxsaints; Rhodesian Man Classic / Conservative.
  • Progressive-Steinheim; Ehringsdorf; Mount Carmel Evidence, distribution and characteristics of Homo sapiens.
  • Cro-Magnon; Grimaldi; Predmost; Combe cappelle; Brunn; Chancelade; Offnet.

4. Human Genetics: History and Development; Scope and Branches; Call structure and Division; Mendels Laws; Patterns of Inheritance-Autosomal Dominant; Autosomal Recessive; Codominance; Sex-linked; sex limited and sex controlled; Multiple alleles.

  • Linkage and Crossing-over
  • Lethal genes.
  • Methods of Studying Inheritance-Twins; Sib-pair; Pedigree.
  • Role of Heredity and Environment-Stature; Skin Colour; Intelligence.
  • Genetics of Blood Groups.
  • ABO System-Two-factor Hypothesis; Multiple Alleles; Rh System
  • Living Human Populations and Human Diversity
  • Concept of Race.
  • Criteria for Racial Classifications : Skin, Hair and Eye colour; Stature; Eyes, Lips and Ears; Face and Lower Jaw; Blood Groups; Dermatoglyphics.
  • Distribution and Characteristics – Caucasoid; Negroid; Mongoloid.
  • Racial Classifications – Denikers; Hootons; Coon, Garn and BirdselTs.
  • Racial Classification of Indian Populations – Risleys; Guhas; Sarkars.

5. Chronology

  • Relative, Absolute and Cultural Geological framework.
  • Tertiary, Quaternary-Pleistocene, Holocene.
  • Major Climatic changes during pleistocene.
  • Glacial and Interglacial periods.
  • Causes of Ice Ages.
  • Pluvial and Interpluvial Periods.
  • Moraines, River Terraces, Loess, Sea-level Changes-Caves, Marine teasaces, Beach, ridges.
  • Relative dating : Terrace, Stratigraphy, Palaenology, Palaecutology.
  • Absolute dating : Radio-carbon, Potassium-argon, Thermoluminescence, Dendrochronology.
  • Cultural Chronology-Three-age system : Stone Age, Copper / Bronze Age, Iron Age.
  • Palaeolithic Period : Lower palaeolithic, Middle palaeolithic, Upper palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithie-Emergence of Metal Technology, Urban revolution.

6. Typo – Technology and Palaeolithic Cultural Features

Percussion technique: Primary and Secondary making.
Block – on-block / anvil technique; Stone hammer technique; Cylinder hammer technique; Clactonian technique; Levallois technique; Pressure technique; Retouch; Blade and Burin technique; Flake technique; Pecking; Grinding and Polishing; Splinter and groove techniques.

Artefact Typology: Simple flake; Side flake; End flake; Levallois flake; Clactonian flake; Blade; Microlithic blade; Tortoise core / Levalloisiam; Discoid core; Mousterian flake; Prismatic core.

  • Tool Typology -
  • Pebble tools; Chopper; Chopping tool
  • Bifaces-Handaxe; Cleaver
  • Scrapers-side, end, round, concave, convex
  • Blade knife; Blunted back blade; Borer / Awl; Burin
  • Points leaf shape-Laurel Leaf; Willow Leaf
  • Points-Shouldered Points-Denticulate; Notch
  • Microliths -
  • Geometric Types
  • Non-Geometric Types
  • Celt-Axe; Adze
  • Shouldered Celt.
  • Shoe-last Celt
  • Grinding Stone
  • Ringstone.
  • Lower Palaeolithic Cultures-Type-technology, Habitat, Environment Economy, People and Distribution.
  • Lower Palaeolithic Cultures
  • Pebble Tool Culture
  • Oldowan; Sohan; Choukoutien
  • Acheulian Cultures
  • Acheulian Cultures of Africa; Acheulian Cultures of Europe;
  • Acheulian Cultures of India.
  • Middle Palaeolithic Cultures
  • Mousterian Culture / Middle Palaeolithic Europe-Habitat, Environment Economy, Social Organisation, Religion, Typo-technology.
  • Middle Stone Age in Africa
  • Middle Palaeolithic in India.
  • Upper  Palaeolithic Culture-Habitat, Environment  Economy, Typo-technology, Social Institution, religion Europe-Perigordian Culture.
  • Chattelperronean; Gravettian; Aurignacian Culture; Solutrean.
  • Culture; Magdalenian Culture.
  • Upper Palaeolithic in India Upper Palaeolithic Art.

7. Holocene Culture

Mesolithic Cultures

Climate changes, Typo technology, Habitat, Economic activity, Socio – religious features.

Europe-Azilian Culture; Tardenoisian Culture; Maglemosian Culture; Kitchen Midden Culture; Natufian Culture.

Indian Mesolithic

Langhnaj; Teri Sites; Birbhanpur; Bagor; Bhimbetka

Adamgarh, Sarainahar Rai, Lekhahlia, Mahadeva.

Mesolithic Art in India

Neolithic ( Early Farming Cultures )

Neolithic of the Near-east

Jericho; Jarmo; Catal Huyuk

Neolithic Cultures of Indian Subcontinent :

Northern Neolithic : Burzahom

Southern Neolithic : Brahmagiri; Sangankallu; Utnur; Telkalakota; Nagarjun Konda.

Eastern Neolithic : Daojali Hading; Sarutaru.

Central Zone (Neo-Chalcolithic) : Navdatoli; Nevasa; Inamgaon.

Indus Civilization : Extant; Characteristics; Chronology; Origin and decline, Continuity with post-Harappan, Indus people and society.

Iron Age :

Megalithic Types : Menhir; Dolmeh / Topikal; Cist; Cairn Circle; Carcophagi.

8. Evolution, Social Structure and Organisation

Evolution : Unilinear, Universal, Multilinear

Diffusion : Neo-evolution; Innovation; Acculturation; Transculturation

Culture : Definitions and Attributes

Functionalism : Malinowski, Radcliffe-Brown

Structuralism : Levi-Strauss, Leach.

Culture and Personality : Basic personality configuration-Kardiner and Linton Enculturation; Status and Role; Patterns of Culture; Culture Change; Themes Cultural Relativism; Values; Great and Little Tradition; Civilization; Gender Theories.

Indian Contribution-Theory and Concepts : G. S. Ghurye; N. K. Bose; D. N. Majumdar; M. N. Srinivas; S. C. Dube L. P. Vidyarthi

Aspects of Culture, Organisation of Culture, Institutions

Social Organisation.

Family :

Family of Orientation and Procreation

Structure : Nuclear, Extended, Joint.

Residence : Patrilocal, Matrilocal, Neolocal, Virilocal, Uxorilocal


Rules : Endogamy, Exogamy,

Monogamy, Polygamy : Polygyny, Polyandry.

Mate selection : Cross-cousin marriage, Levirate, Sororate, Sororal

Dowry, Bride price / Bride wealth

Kinship :

Kinship Terms : Classificatory and Descriptive systems

Consanguineal and Affinal

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary

Terms of Reference and Address

Descent, Inheritance and Succession :

Patriarchal and matriarchal

Unilineal : Patrilineal, Double

Groups : Tribe, Clan, Phratry, Lineage

Kinship behaviour and relationship; Avoidance and Joking relationship, Incest.

9. Economic and Political Organisation: Religion and Magic

Economic Organisation:

Concept of Property

Primitive Communism.

States of Economy: Collection, Hunting, Fishing, Pastoralism, Cultivation, Shifting and Settled.

Subsistence Economy and Market Economy.


Means of Production

Division of Labour

Political Organisation:

Panchayat – traditional and statutory.

Leadership-clan and tribe.

Kingship and Chiefdom in tribal communities.

Customary Law

Judicial System

Crime and Punishment in Primitive Society.

Religion and Magic:

Primitive Religion: Animism, Totemism, Ancestor Propitiation, Shaman, Priest, Medicine Man.

Tribal Mythology: Origin of universe, Tribe and Clan, Tribal deities.

Magic: Black, White, Preventive, Defensive, Destructive, Imitative, Sympathetic, Witchcraft, Sorcery.

Symbolism and Rituals.

Supernatural powers-Mana, Taboo.

10.  Indian Anthropology: Basic Concepts and Issues

Basic Concepts :

Indian Village as part society, as an isolate.

Caste as a group and system.

Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe.

Tribe, Caste, Varna and Caste / Jati.

Notified and Denotified Groups.

Other Backward classes and castes

Sanskritisation, Westernisation, Modernisation

Sacred complex in India

Regionalism and Ethnicity.

Basic Issues :

New Panchayati Raj

Gram Sabha

Women in new Panchayats.

Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Casts Major tribal groups

Tribal states in India.

Tribal Movements for Autonomy, Development Schemes

Tribal Rehabilitation; Democracy and Caste Bonded Labour and Child Labour; Ashram  Schools; Mandal Commission; Dhebar Commission; Emerging Spiritual Leaders (Gurus) in India; Caste among non-Hindus.

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