NET Human Rights Syllabus

NET Human Rights Syllabus

Unit – I

The Basic Concepts: Individual, Group, State, Civil Society, Liberty, Freedom, Equality, Justice, Violence, Counter Violence.

Human Values: Humanity, Compassion, Virtues.

Indian Concepts: Raj Neeti, Lok Neeti, Danda Neeti, Nyaya, Dharma.

Liberal Perspective: Locke, Rousseau, Thdmas Paine, J. S. Mill, A. V Dicey.

Marxian Perspective: Marx, Gramsci, Rosa Luxemberg.

Critical Theory: Horbeumors.

Feminist Perspective: Gender specificity, Patriarchy, Private and Public independent and inter-dependent individual.

Gandhian Perspective (Ruskin, Thoreau, Tolsto ) : State, Power, Swaraj, Rights and Duties.

Dalit Perspective: Phule, Narayna Guru, Ambedkar.

Amartya Sen: Development as Freedom.

Unit – II

Natural Rights and Human Duties: Origins and Evolution

Civil and Political Rights-Individual vis – a – vis Society and State, the contribution of Magna Carta, American Bill of Rights, the French Revolution and its Goals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity Marxist Revolutions, Anti-colonial Movements, Non – violent-Freedom Movement in India.

Constitutional Enshrinement of the Human Rights of Citizens in the Western Countries and Entailing Duties.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( 1948 ) – International Standards Setting.

Impact of the UDHR on the Constitutions of the New States.

Elaboration of Human Rights: International Human Rights Conventions-Debate and Emphasis on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights of Man ( East vs West ; Developing Countries vs Developed Countries ).

International Conventions on Civil and Political Rights, Social, Economic and Cultural Rights and Responsibilities.

Universal Declaration of Human Responsibilities.

Helsinki Declaration

International Conventions and Declarations Relating to specific:

Groups – Women, Child, Indigenous People , Minorities, Refugees.

Rights – Religious Freedom, Torture, Development, Racial Discrimination, Sexual Discrimination.

“Third Generation of Human Rights” Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights.

Unit – III

Society, Economy, Polity, Religion and Culture-their Inter – relationship

Impact of Social Structure on Human Behaviour; Role of Socialization in Human Values, Human Rights and Duties.

Science and Technology, Modernization, Globalization and Dehumanization.

Social Stratification: Racial and Caste Prejudice and Discrimination; Human Rights Issues of Weaker Sections and Ethnic Minorities.

Gender: Gender Discrimination, Domestic Violence and Rape.

Children: Child Abuse, Child Labour, Street Children.

Social Structure and Social Problems: Social and Communal Conflicts and Social Harmony.

Rural Poverty, Unemployment, Bonded Labour.

Urban Poverty, Slums, Lack of Basic Civil Services, Prostitution.

Migrant Workers and Human Rights Violations, Human Rights of Mentally and Physically Handicapped.

Environmental Degradation and Rights of Current vs Future Generate as.

Unit – IV

State, Individual liberty, freedom and

The changing nature of State with special reference to the developing countries:

Soft State, Interventionist State, Welfare State, Repressive State.

Political Regimes and Human Rights in developed as well as developing countries.

Human Rights and International Politics: Emergence of a new global order-Tehran Conference (1968) – Vienna Conference (1993)  – Human Rights, Environmental Degradation and Underdevelopment.

International Humanitarian Law : Geneva Conventions-International Red Cross Society – Refugee Protection and the Role of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees – International Tribunals (Rwanda and former Yugoslavia) and the International Criminal Court.

International Intervention: The question of Nation-State, Citizenship and Sovereignty.

Right of Self-determination: Autonomous Movements, Secessionist Movements, Terrorist Movements and Transnational Terrorism.

Grassroots Movements and Human Rights.

Unit – V

Universal Human Rights: Context and the Concerns Universal Declaration of Human Rights International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Option Protocol.

International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination.

Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment.

The UN Convention on the protection of the Rights migrant workers-Indigenous Peoples Rights-Human Rights of Refugees.

Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women. Convention on Rights of Child.

African Charter – European and Inter-American Convention as Human Rights. Islamic Declaration of Human Rights.

UN Organs :

UN Commission of Human Rights.

UN Childrens Fund (UNICEF).

UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR).

UN Commission on the Status of Women.

International Labour Organization (ILO).

UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

European Commission on Human Rights.

Humanitarian Law

Universal Human Rights: Changing World Order
Unit – VI

Models of Development: Growth Approach, Basic Needs Approach, Sustainable Human Development, Development as Freedom.

Globalization and Human Rights: Dynamics of Globalization, Emergence of Market Forces, Assertion of Civil Society, Retreat of State, Privatization, Liberalization, Emergence of Information Age.

Economic Growth Strategies (Developing Countries): Implications for Poverty, Employment, Planned Development and Social Inequality.

World Trade Organization: Implication for Human Rights Impact on Developing Countries with special reference to India; DSM (Dispute Settlement Mechanism ).

Intellectual Property Rights: Patents Law, Bio-diversity Convention, Agenda 21, Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights ( trips ), Trade-Related International Investment Measures ( TRIMs ), General Agreement on Trade in Services ( GATS ), Agreement on Agriculture ( AOA ).

Transnational Corporations (TNCs) and the Human Rights Situation in Developing Countries.

International Labour Organization (ILO), Conventions and Standards for Human Rights and Quality of Life.

Right to Development: The Third World Concerns, Working Group Recommendations, UNDP – initiatives.

State and Development of the Marginahzed / Disadvantaged Groups in India: The Poor, the Unemployed and the Socially Dislocated People.

Minimum Wages Act – Problems of Implementation, Right to Security of Food, Health and Education.

New Social Movements, Democratic Struggles and Human Rights.


Concepts of Development, Underdevelopment and Social Action.

Need for Collective Action in Developing Societies and Methods of Social Action.

Social Movements: Political, Social and Religious Reform.

Agrarian and Peasant Movements.

Backward Class, Dalit and Women Movements.

Ecological and Environment Movements.

Non-Government Organisations (NGOs): Structure, Functions and Problems.

NGOs and Human Rights Movements: Amnesty International, Asia Watch, International Committee of Red Cross.

NGOs and Human Rights in India: Land, Water and Forest Issues.

Human Rights Movement: Peoples Union for Civil Liberties ( PUCL ), Peoples Union for Democratic Rights ( PUDR ) and other Civil and Democratic Rights Organization in India.


Indian Civilization: Change and Continuity.

Indian Constitution: Freedom Movement.

Indian Constitution: Sociological Foundation.

Constitutional Vision of the role of the State.

Constitutional Vision of Freedom: Fundamental Rights.

Constitutional Vision of Justice: Directive Principles of State Policy.

Constitutional Amendments.

Constitution: Human Duties.

Judicial Interpretations: Landmark Judgements.

Constitutional Review: The Contemporary Debates.


Constitutional Governance: State of Rule of Law.

Constitutional Organs: Inter and intra-relationships /conflict and cooperation.

Fundamental Rights and Repressive Laws: Preventive Detention, MISA, NASA, TADA, Armed Force Special Power Act and Criminal Law Amendment.

The imposition of National Emergency: The Societal Experience.

The Criminal Justice System: Crime, Punishment, and Human Rights with special reference-IPC & CRPC and Indian Evidence Act.

The Directive Principles of State Policy: The Question of Effectiveness and Enforcement.

Judicial Activism: Public Interest Litigation.

Legislation for the Weaker Sections: The Question of Enforcement.

Law Enforcing Agencies: Police, military, Paramilitary – emerging experience.

Human Rights Enforcement: NHRC, State Human Rights Commissions, Human Rights Courts.

Human Rights Education: Problems and Prospects.


Inter – relativity of Human Rights and Responsibilities.

Diverse Perspectives of Human Rights, Revolution of Rising Aspirations, and Needs of the Peoples World over.

Challenging problems in the areas of the Right of self-determination of peoples; the Protection of Minorities; the Rights of Indigenous peoples; the Rights of Women and the Child, Freedom from Torture; Freedom from Pollution, Freedom from any Discrimination.

The Problems of the Right to-Development; the Problems of the Right to Clean Environment; the Problems of the Right to Racial Discrimination.

Freedom from Sexual Discrimination and Harassment.

Protection of Refugees and of Civilians in Armed

Right to Life and the Basic Needs – Food, Water, Health, Housing, and Education.

Right to Information.

The assertion of the Identity of Ethnic Groups.

Universal Entitlement of People to Democracy as a Legitimate Form of Government.

Duties and Rights: State Duties and the Duties of other Entities Exercising Authority.

The retreat of the Nation-State.

Science, Technology, and Human Rights and Duties.

Need for Spelling out Human Duties and Eternal Human Values.

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