NET Philosophy Syllabus

NET Philosophy Syllabus 

Unit – 1: Classical Indian: Epistemology and Metaphysics

Vedic and Upani?adic: ?ta – the cosmic order, the divine and the human realms; the centrality of the institution of yaj?a (sacrifice), theories of creation ?tman – Self ( and not – self ), J?grat, Svapna, Susupti and turiya, Brahma?.
C?rv?ka : Pratyak?a as the only pram??a, critique of anum?na and ?abda, Consciousness as epi-phenomenon.
Jainism : Concept of reality – sat, dravya, gu?a, pary?ya, Jiva, ajiva, anek?ntav?da, sy?dv?da and nayav?da; theory of knowledge.
Buddhism : Four Noble Truths, ?stangika M?rga, Distinction between Brahmi?ic and ?raminic traditions. Pratityasamutp?da, k?a?abhahgav?da, an?tmav?da. Schools of Buddhism : Vaibh??ika, Sautr?ntika, Yogac?ra, M?dhyamika and Tibetan Buddhism.
Ny?ya : Pram? and apram?, Theories of pram??a: pratyak?a, anum?na, upamana, ?abda. Hetvabh?sa. Concept of God. Debate between Buddhism and Ny?ya about Pram??a-Vyavasth? and Pram??a Samplava. Anyath?khyati.
Vai?e?ika : Concept of pad?rtha and its kinds, Asatk?ryav?da, Kinds of K?ra?a: samav?yi, asamav?yi, and nimitta k?ra?a, parama?ukara?av?da.
S??khya : Satk?ryav?da, prak?ti and its evolutes, arguments for the existence of prak?ti, nature of puru?a, arguments for the existence and plurality of puru?a, relationship between puru?a and prak?ti, atheism.
Yoga : Patanjalis Theory of Pram??a, concept of ?itta and ?itta – v?tti, stages of ?itt-bhumi, the role of God in Yoga.
Purva – Mim??s? : Pram??yav?da: Svatah-pram??yav?da and Paratah-pram??yavada, ?ruti and its importance, classification of ?ruti-v?kyas, vidhi, ni?edha and arthav?da, dharma, bh?van?, ?abda-nityav?da, J?ti, ?aktivada; Kum?rila and Prabh?kara Schools of Mim??sa and their major points of difference, triputi – samvit, j?atat?, abh?va and anupalabdhi, anvitadbhidhanav?da, abhihitanvayav?da, Theories of error: Akhy?ti, Viparitakhy?ti, atheism.
Advaita : Brahma?, relation between Brahma? and ?tman, three grades of satt?,
Adhy?sa, m?ya, Jiva, Vivartav?da, Anirvachniya-khy?ti.
Vi?i?t?dvaita : Sagu?a Brahma?, refutation of m?ya, aprthaksiddhi pari??mav?da, Jiva,
bhakti and prapatti, Brahma-Pari??mav?da, Sat-khy?ti.
Dvaita : Rejection of nirgu?a brahma? and m?ya, bheda and s?ksi, bhakti.
Dvaitavaita: Concept of J??naswaroop, kinds of inanimate
Sudhadvaita: Concept of Avikrta-pari??mav?da

Unit-2 : Classical Western: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern : Epistemology and Metaphysics

Pre-Socratic Philosophers: Thales, Anaxagoras, Anaximenies, Ionians, Pythagoras, Parmenides,
Heraclitus and Democritus,
The Sophists and Socrates
Plato and Aristotle:

Plato – Theory of knowledge, knowledge and opinion, theory of Ideas, the method of
dialectic, soul and God.
Aristotle – Classification of the sciences, the theoretical, the practical and the
productive, logic as an organon, critique of Platos theory of Ideas, theory of causation,
form and matter, potentiality and actuality, soul and God.
Medieval Philosophy

St. Augustine: Problem of Evil.
St. Anselm: Ontological argument.
St. Thomas Aquinas: Faith and Reason, Essence and Existence, the Existence of God.
Modern Western Philosophy:

Descartes : Conception of method , Criteria of truth, doubt and methodological
scepticism, cogito ergo sum, innate ideas, Cartesian dualism: mind and matter, proofs
for the existence of God, interactionism
Spinoza : Substance, Attribute and Mode, the concept of God or Nature, Intellectual
love of God, parallelism, pantheism, three orders of knowing
Leibnitz : Monadology, truths of reason and fact, innateness of ideas, proofs for the
existence of God, principles of non – contradiction, sufficient reason and identity of
indiscernibles, the doctrine of pre -established harmony, problem of freedom
Locke : Ideas and their classification, refutation of innate ideas, theory of substance,
distinction between primary and secondary qualities, theory of knowledge, three grades
of knowledge.
Berkeley : Rejection of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities,
immaterialism, critique of abstract ideas, esse est percipi, the problem of solipcism; God
and self.
Hume : Impressions and ideas, knowledge concerning relations of ideas and knowledge
concerning matters of fact, induction and causality, the external world and the self,
personal identity, rejection of metaphysics, scepticism, reason and the passions
Kant : The critical philosophy, classification of judgements, possibility of synthetic a
priori judgements, the Copernican revolution, forms of sensibility, categories of
understanding, the metaphysical and the transcendental deduction of the categories,
phenomenon and noumenon, the Ideas of Reason – soul, God and world as a whole,
rejection of speculative metaphysics.
Hegel : The conception of Geist (spirit), the dialectical method, concepts of being, non –
being and becoming, absolute idealism, Freedom.

Unit – 3: Indian Ethics

Concept of Purus?rtha, ?reyas and Preyas
Var??shrama, Dharma, S?dh?ra?a Dharma
?na and yaj?a, Concept of duty
Karma-yoga, Sthitpraj?a, Svadharma, Lokasa?graha
Apurva and Ad??ta
S?dhya-S?dhana, Itikartavyata
Law of Karma: ethical implications
?ta and Satya
Ast?nga Yoga
Jainism: Samvara-nirjar?, Tri-rat?a, Panch-vrata
Buddhism: Up?ya-Kaushal, Brahma-vih?ra: matri, karu??, mudit?, upeksha, bodhisattva
Carvakas Hedonism

Unit – 4: Western Ethics

Concepts of Good, right, justice, duty, obligation, cardinal virtues, Eudaemonism,
Intuition as explained in Teleological and Deontological Theories.
Egoism, Altruism, Universalism
Subjectivism, Cultural Relativism, Super-naturalism
Ethical realism and Intuitionism,
Kants moral theory: Postulates of morality, Good-will, Categorical Imperative, Duty,
Mean and ends, Maxims
Utilitarianism: principle of utility, problem of sanction and justification of morality, kinds
of utilitarianism, Moral theories of Bentham, J. S. Mill, Sidgwick
Theories of Punishment
Ethical cognitivism and non-cognitivism: Emotivism, Prescriptivism, Descriptivism

Unit- 5: Contemporary Indian Philosophy

Vivekananda: Practical Vedanta, Universal Religion, Religious Experience, Religious Rituals
Sri Aurobindo: Evolution, mind and supermind, Integral Yoga
Iqbal: Self, God, man and superman, Intellect and Intuition
Tagore: Religion of man, ideas on education, Concept of Nationalism
K. C. Bhattacharyya: Swaraj in ideas, Concept of Philosophy, subject as Freedom, the doctrine
of Maya.
Radhakrishnan: Intellect and intuition, the Idealist view of life, concept of Universal Religion,
Hindu view of life.
J. Krishnamurti: Conception of thought, Freedom from the known, analysis of self, Choiceless
Gandhi: Truth, Non-violence, satyagraha, swaraj, critique of modern civilization.
Ambedkar: Annihilation of caste, philosophy of Hinduism, Neo-Buddhism
D.D. Upadhyaya: Integral Humanism, Advaita Vedanta, Purusartha
Narayana Guru: the spiritual freedom and social equality, one caste, one religion, one God.
Tiruvallur: Tirukkural
Jyotiba Phule: Critical understanding of Caste-system.
M.N.Roy: Radical Humanism, Materialism
Maulana Azad: Humanism

Unit-6: Recent Western Philosophy

Analytic and Continental Philosophy:

Frege: Sense and Reference
Logical Positivism: Verification theory of meaning, Elimination of metaphysics, concept of
Moore: Distinction between Sense and Reference, Refutation of Idealism, Defense of commonsense,
Proof of an External World.
Russell: Logical Atomism, Definite Descriptions, Refutation of Idealism
Wittgenstein: Language and Reality, Facts and objects, names and propositions, the picture
theory, critique of private language, meaning and use, forms of life, notion of philosophy,
Wittgensteinian Fideism, On Certainty.
Gilbert Ryle: Systematically misleading expressions, category mistake, concept of mind, critique
of Cartesian dualism
A. J. Ayer: The Problem of Knowledge
W.V.O. Quine: Two Dogmas of Empiricism
H.P. Grice and P.F. Strawson: In Defense of a dogma
Phenomenology and Existentialism:
Husserl: Phenomenological Method, Philosophy as a rigorous science, Intentionality,
Phenomenological Reduction, Inter-subjectivity
Heidegger: The concept of Being (Dasein), Man as being in the world, critique of technological
Kierkegaard: Subjectivity as Truth, Leap of faith
Sartre: Concept of Freedom, Bad-faith, Humanism
Morleau-Ponty: Perception, Embodied Consciousness
William James: Pragmatic Theories of Meaning and Truth, Varieties of Religious experience
John Dewey: Concept of Truth, Common-faith, education
Nietzsche: Critique of Enlightenment, Will to Power, Genealogy of Moral
Richard Rorty: Critique of representationalism, Against Epistemological method, Edifying
Immanuel Levinas: Ethics as a first philosophy, Philosophy of other

Unit- 7: Social and Political Philosophy: Indian

Mahabharata: Danda-niti, foundations, Rajdharma, Law and Governance, Naradas Questions
to King Yudhisthir
Kautilya: Sovereignty, Seven Pillars of State-craft, State, Society, Social-life, State
administration, State economy, law and justice, internal security, welfare and external affairs
Kamandaki: Social order and State elements
Constitutional Morality, Secularism and Fundamental Rights
Constitutionalism, Total revolution, terrorism, Swadeshi, Satyagrah, Sarvodaya, Social
Democracy, State Socialism, Affirmative Action, Social Justice
Social Institutions: Family, Marriage, property, education and religion

Unit- 8: Social and Political Philosophy: Western

Plato: Ideal State and Justice
Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau: Social Contract Theory
Isaiah Berlin: Conceptions of Liberty
Bernard Williams: Idea of Equality
Liberalism: Rawls; Distributive justice, Nozick; Justice as Entitlement, Dworkin; Justice as
equality; Amartya Sen: Global Justice, Freedom and Capability.
Marxism: Dialectical Materialism, Alienation, Critique of Capitalism, Doctrine of Class Struggle
and Classless Society.
Communitarianism: Communitarian critique of liberal self, Universalism Vs. Particularism,
Theory of Charles Taylor, MacIntyre, Michael Sandel
Multiculturalism: Charles Taylor; Politics of recognition, Will Kymlicka; the conception of Minority
Feminism: Basic Concepts: Patriarchy, misogyny, Gender, Theories of Feminism; Liberal,
Socialist, radical and eco-feminism

Unit- 9: Logic

Truth and Validity
Denotation and Connotation
Nature of Propositions
Categorical Syllogism
Laws of thought
Classification of Propositions
Square of Opposition
Truth-Functions and Propositional Logic
Quantification and Rules of Quantification
Symbolic Logic: Use of symbols
Decision Procedures: Truth Table, Using Truth- Tables for testing the validity of arguments
Venn Diagram, informal and formal Fallacies
Proving Validity, Argument, and Argument-form
Axiomatic System, Consistency, Completeness
Differences between Deductive and Inductive Logic

Unit- 10: Applied Philosophy

What is applied Philosophy?

Philosophy of Technology; technology, dominance, power and social inequalities
Democratization of Technology
Public evaluation of science and technology
Ethical Implication of information technology, biotechnology, non-technology
Environmental Ethics: Nature as means or end, Aldo-Leopold; land-ethics, Arne Naess: Deep
Ecology, Peter Singer; Animal Rights
Medical-Ethics: Surrogacy, Doctor-patient relationship, abortion, euthanasia, female-infanticide
Professional Ethics: Corporate Governance and ethical responsibility

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